100 Endemic Plants of Greece

Greece has approximately 1000 endemic plant species (out of a total of approximately 5800 species). This book offers a portrait of 100 endemic plants, belonging to 24 families and 46 genera.

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Τhe butterflies of the C Aegean island of Iraklia

Giannis Gavalas is the leading naturalist of the Kiklades (Cyclades) islands. Over the last years he has been recording the nature of the islands.

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Parnassiana Archives

Parnassiana Archives, is a journal published by Wild Greece Editions, with articles about wild life of Greece.

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Freshwater fishes of Greece

 

 The freshwater fishes of Greece

 

Sotiris Alexiou 

 

 

 For more recent data, see:

 

  • Barbieri, R., S., Zogaris, E. Kalogianni, M. Th. Stoumboudi, Y. Chatzinikolaou, S. Giakoumi, Y. Kapakos, D. Kommatas, N. Koutsikos, V. Tachos, L. Vardakas, & Economou, A.N. 2015. Freshwater Fishes and Lampreys of Greece: An annotated checklist.  Monographs on Marine Sciences No 8. Hellenic Center of Marine Research. Athens, Greece. p. 130.      [PDF]  

 &

  • Papaconstantinou, C., Kapiris, K., Karachle, P.K. & Zenetos, A. 2014. Fauna Graeciae. An updated checklist of the fishes in the Hellenic seas. Monographs on Marine Sciences, 7. National Centre of Marine Research, Athens, 338 pp.           [PDF]

 

   

 WHAT'S NEW (2014):

  • A paper published by Bianco & Ketmaier, providing the resurrection of genus Leucos and the decription of a new species, Rutilus stoumboudae.
  • A paper published by Freyhof, Kärst & Geiger, describing Valencia robertae from southern mainland Greece.                                

 

 

October 2013 

 

1.  Introduction   

Freshwater ichthyofauna of Greece consists of 162 species belonging to 27 families, including diadromous, euryhaline and introduced. The actual number is not exactly clear, as marine fishes are often encountered inside lagoons or estuaries. Of these, 137 are native for Greece and 25 are introduced. 46 are endemic. Much more species are endemic of S Balkans. The total number is expected to rise, mainly due to taxonomic changes. The most diverse family is the Cyprinidae with 76 species, followed by Cobitidae (11) and Gobiidae (11) and Salmonidae with 10 species. 

Economidis (1991), published a list of freshwater fishes of Greece, counting 105 species, native and introduced. Bobori & Economidis (2006) raise that number to 135. After mainly taxonomic re-evaluations, the number increase to 161 by Economou et al. (2007) and 167 by Koutsikos et al. (2012). 

Greek freshwater ichthyofauna is the most diverse ichthyofauna of Europe, with one of the highest degree of endemism: c. 60% of the freshwater fish species of Greece are endemic to Greece or to the southern drainages of the neighboring countries. Cyprinidae comprise 47% of the total number (Tsoumani et al. 2012). 

The Balkan freshwater ichthyofauna consists of 193 native species, with an endemism rate of 56%. The greatest percentage of endemic species is observed at Prespa lakes (89%), followed by Ionian Sea (west mainland Greece and west Peloponnisos (75%). (Oikonomou et al. 2014).    

The European freshwater ichthyofauna consists of 546 native species (the total number is expected to rise up to 700-800), with the highest diversity found in the lower parts of the rivers draining into the Black and Caspian Seas. Freshwater fishes are one of the most highly threatened species groups in Europe: at least 37% of them are threatened, with most of them confined to southern Europe. Almost 80% of the European species are endemic to Europe, many of them restricted to one or few rivers or lakes (Freyhof & Brooks 2011). 

Most of the freshwater fishes are threatened by pollution, habitat loss due to over-abstraction of water, introduced alien fishes, overfishing and the constraction of dams, blocking migration (Bobori et al. 2001, Freyhof & Brooks 2011). 33% of the freshwater fish of the Balkan peninsula is classified as Endangered (Oikonomou et al. 2014).

Taxonomic classification follows Eschmeyer & Fong (2011). An asterisk notes a species endemic to Greece.  

 

2.   List of species 

 

KINGDOM ANIMALIA

 

PHYLUM CHORDATA

 

SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA

 

SUPERCLASS OSTEICHTHYES 

 

CLASS CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI  (1 order worldwide) 

 

Order PETROMYZONTIFORMES (1 family worldwide) 

 

Family PETROMYZONTIDAE (9 genera, 43 species worldwide)

 

Circular mouth with rings of horny teeth. Ca. 43 species worldwide, many of them parasitic, attaching themselves and feeding on cetaceans or other fishes.  

 

Genus Eudontomyzon Regan, 1911   (γκαβόχελο) 

 

1.*Εudontomyzon graecus  Renaud & Economidis, 2010 

Endemic to Louros river and Filipias brook. Maximum length 19 cm. Non-parasitic. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated. 

 

2. *Eudontomyzon hellenicus Vladykov, Renaud, Kott & Economidis, 1982     

Endemic to Strimon river drainage (Agiannis, Kefalari and Mylopotamos brooks). Maximum length 16 cm. Non-parasitic. Inhabits shallow, clear, fairly fast-flowing brooks with gravelly substrates, some rocks and aquatic plants. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.

 

Genus Petromyzon Linnaeus 1758 

3. Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 

A species of Atlantic and Mediterranean Seas. Maximum length 120 cm, common length 60 cm. Parasitic, marine species, anadromus, entering rivers to spawn. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.   

 

 

CLASS ACTINOPTERYGII   (46 orders worldwide)

  

Order ACIPENSERIFORMES (1 family worldwide) 

 

Family ACIPENSERIDAE (4 genera, 26 species worldwide)

 

Genus Acipenser Linnaeus, 1758

 

Primitive, large-bodied, long-lived, anadromous fishes. All species are endangered, mainly due to overfishing, damming and pollution.

 

4. Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869 

Introduced, mainly to lake Pamvotis. 

 

5. Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt & Ratzeberg, 1833 

Introduced, mainly to lake Pamvotis, artificial lakes of Aoos spring (Ipeiros) and Marathia (Mikonos isl.) (Εconomidis et al. 2000, Paschos et al. 2008). Reported from Evros river, escaped or released from Bulgarian aquaculture farms (Koutrakis et al. 2011). IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.   

 

6. Acipenser huso Linnaeus, 1758   (μπελούγκα, μουρούνα) 

{Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)} 

An occasional visitor to Greek waters, reported from Evros river as escaped or released from Bulgarian aquaculture farms (Koutrakis et al. 2011). Recent studies indicate that Huso Brandt & Ratzeberg, 1833 is not a separate genus and sould be included in the genus Acipenser (Birstein et al. 1999, 2002, Vasil’eva et al. 2009). The largest freshwater fish in the world, common length 215 cm and maximum length 7.2m (1,571 kg)! Mainly a marine species of Caspian, Black, Azov and Adriatic Sea basins. Anadromous, entering large rivers for reproduction. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.  

 

7. Acipenser naccarii Bonaparte, 1836 

A marine species of Adriatic and Ionian Sea, down to Lefkada island. Released to Kalamas river (Paschos et al. 2008). IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.  

 

8. Acipenser ruthenus L., 1758 

Introduced, mainly lake Pamvotis. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

9. Acipenser stellatus (Pallas, 1771) 

Occurs in Evros and Strimon rivers. Common length 125 cm. Mainly a marine species but anadromous, entering large rivers for reproduction. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

10. Acipenser sturio Linnaeus, 1758 (οξύρυγχος, ξυρύχι, μουρούνα) 

Occurs in Evros, Nestos, Strimon, Pinios and Acheloos rivers. Common length 100-150 cm. A species of Northern Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic. Mainly a marine species but anadromous, entering large rivers for reproduction. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

Family POLYODONTIDAE (2 genera, 2 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Polyodon Lacépède, 1797 

11. Polyodon spathula (Walbaum, 1792) 

Introduced from N America. Slow-flowing waters of large rivers, close to the bottom. Maximum length 220 cm, common length 120 cm. 

 

Order ANGUILLIFORMES  (15 families worldwide) 

 

Family ANGUILLIDAE (1 genus, 20 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Anguilla (Schrank, 1798)   (χέλι) 

12. Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Lagoons and rivers all around Greece. Maximum length 50 cm. Species of Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Catadromous, lives rivers and lakes and migrates to the Sargasso sea, W Atlantic, to spawn. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.

 

Order CLUPEIFORMES  (6 families worldwide) 

 

Family CLUPEIDAE (56 genera, 200 species)

 

Silvery, with large scales. Pelvic fins placed far back below dorsal fin. Ca. 200 species, mainly in the tropics. Forms large schools. 

 

Genus Alosa Linck, 1790 

 

13. Alosa fallax (Lacepède, 1803) (σαρδελομάνα, φρίσσα) 

Evros, Nestos, Strimon, Pinios, Acheloos, Thiamis, Loudias, Louros, Arachthos rivers. Also lake Vistonis. Maximum length 60 cm. Common length 40 cm. E Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. Amphihaline, marine waters close to coast, mainly estuaries. Anadromous, migrates to rivers to sprawn. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

14. *Alosa macedonica (Vinciguerra, 1921)   (λιπαριά)

 Endemic to lake Volvi. Maximum length 35 cm. Common length 18-23 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

15. *Alosa vistonica (Economidis & Sinis, 1986) (θρίτσα) 

{Alosa caspia v. Economidis & Sinis, 1986} 

Εndemic to lake Vistonis. Maximum length 17 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

 

Order CYPRINIFORMES (7 families worldwide) 

 

 Family CYPRINIDAE (352 genera, 2838 species)

 

This is the largest and most diverse freshwater fish family, with an almost worldwide distribution. Over 210 genera and 2100 species. They are toothless fishes with no true stomach and possess pharyngeal teeth. 

 

Genus Abramis Cuvier, 1816 

16. Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758) (Λεστιά) 

Evros and Strimon river drainages and lake Volvi. Maximum length 82 cm. Common length 25 cm. Slow running, large rivers and lakes. C and E Europe. Highly commercial. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern..

 

Genus Alburnoides Jetteles, 1861 

17. Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch, 1782)   (τσιρωνάκι) 

{A. strymonicus Chichkoff, 1940} 

From Prespa lakes and Aoos river, south to Achellos and Sperchios and east to Nestosriver. Maximum length 13 cm. Common length 9 cm. Streams and rivers with fast flowing waters, at sub-montane  level. Widely distributed in Europe and W Asia, propably a species complex. 

 

18. Alburnoides prespensis (Karaman, 1924) 

{A. bipunctatus p. (Karaman, 1928)} 

Endemic to lakes Prespa and its tributaries. Maximum length 9 cm. Lake shores. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

19. *Alburnoides thessalicus Stephanidis, 1950 

{Alburnus th. (Stephanidis, 1950)} 

Endemic to Pinios river drainage. Maximum length 12 cm. Open waters of medium to large rivers. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

Genus Alburnus Rafinesque, 1820 

{incl. Chalcalburnus} 

 

20. Alburnus alburnus   (Linnaeus, 1758)   (σίρκο) 

A European species, occurring in dam lakes of N Greece (lake Doirani, dam lakes of Nestos). Maximum length 25 cm. Common length 15 cm. 

 

21. Alburnus belvica Karaman, 1924   (μπελοβίτσα) 

{Chalcalburnus b.) 

Endemic to Prespa lakes (Greece, Albania and FYROM). Maximum length 22 cm. Occurs in the lakes and water courses on low plains, with little current. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

22. *Alburnus vistonicus Freyhof & Kottelat, 2007 

Endemic to lake Vistonis drainage. Maximim length 22 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

23. *Alburnus volviticus Freyhof & Kottelat, 2007   (γελάρτζα) 

{Chalcalburnus chalcoides macedonicus Stephanidis, 1971 

  A. macedonicus Karaman, 1928} 

Endemic to basin of lake Volvi. Extirpated from lake Koronia. Maximum length 30 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered. 

 

Genus Aspius Agassiz, 1832 

 

24. Aspius aspius (Linnaeus, 1758) (ασπρογρίβαδο) 

Drainages from lake Volvi and Strimon river to Evros river. Maximum length 100 cm. Common lake 55 cm. Occurs in open waters of lowland rivers and lakes. Migrates upstream to spawn. A species of E Europe and W Turkey. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.   

 

Genus Barbus Cuvier & Cloquet, 1816

 

Widely distributed in Eurasia and Africa, with c. 1000 species. Subgenus Luciobarbus {syn. Messinobarbus} is monophyletic. 

 

25. *Barbus (Luciobarbus) albanicus Steindachner, 1870 (στροσίδι, μαρίτσι) 

{Messinobarbus albanicus (Steindachner, 1870) 

  Barbus graecus Steindachner, 1896} 

Endemic to W and S Greece, from Kalamas to Mornos, not Acheron, east to Sperchios and Kifissos. Also Pinios Peloponnisos. Lakes Trichonis, Amvrakia, Yliki and Pamvotis. Maximum length 60 cm. Occurs at lower course of rivers and lakes, with mud to sand bottoms. Often sympatric with B. peloponnesius, which is rheophilic. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.  

 

26. Barbus (Barbus) balcanicus Kotlik, Tsigenopoulos, Ráb & Berrebi, 2002 

Axios, Gallikos, Loudias and Aliakmon rivers. Also lake Vegoritis. Maximum length 18 cm. Mountain and submountain brooks and rivers and lakes, with fast to moderate flowing waters, with gravel bottoms. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.  

 

27. *Barbus (Luciobarbus) carottae (Bianco, 1998) 

{Messinibarbus carottae  Bianco, 1998} 

Endemic to lakes Iliki and Paralimni and propably river Kifissos. Maximum length 13 cm. Close to B. albanicus. 

 

28. Barbus (Barbus) cyclolepis Heckel, 1837            (Μπριάνα, Βιργιάνα) 

Thraki, west to lake Vistonis. Rheophylic, mostly at streams with gravely bottom. Moderately- sized fish, up to 22 cm at rivers, larger in lakes. Close to B. strumicae and B. sperchiensis. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.     

 

29. *Barbus (Barbus) euboicus Stephanidis, 1950 

Endemic to Manikiotiko or Monodriotiko stream, in CE Evvoia. Close to B. peloponnesius. Rheophylic at streams with gravely bottom, maximum length 25 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.  

 

30. Barbus (Barbus) macedonicus Karaman, 1928 (μουστακάτο) 

{B. thessalus Stephanidis, 1971} 

Axios, Aliakmon and Pinios river drainages. A C Balkan endemic. Μaximum length 65 cm. Close to the European B. barbus. Occurs at lower course of rivers and lakes, with mud to sand bottoms. IUCN Red List Status, Data Deficient.

  

31. Barbus (Barbus) peloponnesius  Valenciennes, 1842 

W and NW Greece, from river Thiamis southwards to river Pamisos. Also extreme S Albania. Maximum length 19 cm. Rheophylic, mostly at streams with gravely bottom. Also, at lakes and rivers with little current. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.     

 

32. Barbus (Barbus) pergamonensis Karaman, 1971 

Evergetoulas stream, Lesvos isl. A rheophylic fish of W Anatolia, living at streams and upper sections of rivers, with a maximum length of 17 cm.   

 

33. Barbus (Barbus) prespensis Karaman, 1924    (μπριάνα) 

{Barbus graecus prespensis Karaman, 1924} 

Prespa lakes (Greece, Albania, FYROM) and Aoos river. Widespread in the southeastern Adriatic Sea basin (Marková et al 2010). Maximum length 35 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

34. *Barbus (Barbus) sperchiensis Stephanidis, 1950 

{B. euboicus s. Stephanidis, 1950  

  B. cyclolepis s. 

  B. chlororematicus Stephanidis, 1971} 

Sperchios, Pinios and Chlororema drainages and streams in extreme N Evvia.Rheophylic, mostly at streams with gravely bottom, maximum length 20 cm. Close to B. cyclolepis and B. strumicae. IUCN Red List Status, Near Threatened. 

 

35. Barbus (Barbus) strumicae Karaman, 1955   (μπριάνα) 

{B. cyclolepis s. Karaman, 1955} 

From Chalkidiki to river Nestos. Endemic to E Balkans. Rheophylic, mostly at streams and rivers with gravely bottom, maximum length 25 cm. Close to B. cyclolepis and C. sperchiensis. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

Genus Carassius Nilsson, 1832 

 

36. Carassius auratus (L., 1758) (χρυσόψαρο) 

Introduced from C and E Asia as an ornamental for pods and aquaria. Maximum length 32 cm, common length 10 cm.   

 

37. Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (κουτσουράς) 

Evros river. Maximum length 64 cm, common length 15 cm. Often confused with C. gibelio. Slow moving waters, rich in vegetation. Highly commercial and introduced.  

 

38. Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) (πεταλούδα)   

The wild ancestor of the goldfish. Probably native in N Greece but widely introduced elsewhere and often confused with Cyprinus carpio. Maximum length 35 cm, common length 20 cm. Still water bodies and lowland rivers, with submerged vegetation. 

 

39. Carassius langsdorfii (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) 

Lower lakes of Acheloos river (Lisymachia, Trichonis). Introduced from Japan, very close to C. auratus and C. gibelio. Maximum length 40 cm.

 

Genus Chondrostoma Agassiz, 1835 

 

A genus of c. 30 species, distributed in Eurasia. 

 

40. Chondrostoma prespensis Karaman, 1924 

Endemic to Prespa lakes (Greece, Albania, FYROM). Maximum length 27 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

41. Chondrostoma vardarense Karaman, 1928   (γουρουνομύτης, σύρτης) 

Aoos, Pinios, Aliakmon, Axios, Strimon, Nestos and Evros river basins. A species of S Balkans. Maximum length 35 cm. Fast to strong water flow, at rocky to stony substrates.Closely related to Ch. prespense. IUCN Red List Status, Near Threatened

 

Genus Ctenopharyngodon Steindachner, 1866

 

Monotypic genus, native to E Asia.

  

42. Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) 

Widely introduced around the world. Slow-flowing or standing water, with vegetation.  Maximum length 150 cm, common length 11 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated.

 

 Genus Cyprinus Linnaeus, 1758 

 

43. Cyprinus carpio  Linnaeus, 1758  (γριβάδι, κυπρίνος)   

Maximum length 110 cm. Common length 31 cm. Slow flowing and still waters and lakes with vegetation. Probably native in C and N Greece, widely introduced elsewhere.

 

 

Genus Gobio Cuvier, 1816 

 

Eurasian genus, with c. 50 species. 

44. Gobio bulgaricus Drensky, 1926     (γυφτόψαρο) 

Strimon, Nestos and Evros river drainages. Maximum length 9 cm. From Evros to Aliakmon river drainages. Streams and rivers with moderate flow, on sandy substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.   

 

45. *Gobio feraeensis Stephanidis, 1973 

Endemic to Pinios river drainage and Karla lake (recently extirpated). Probably conspecific to G. gobio. Maximum length 10 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

46. Gobio gobio (Linnaeus, 1758)   (γυφτόψαρο) 

Aoos, Aliakmon, Loudias and Axios river drainages. Maximum length 20 cm, common length 12 cm. 

 

Genus Hypophthalmichthys Bleeker, 1860 

 

47. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes, 1844 (ασημοκυπρίνος) 

An E Asian fish, introduced worldwide for aquaculture and control of algal blooms. Maximum length 105 cm, common length 18 cm. 

 

48. Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845)   (μαρμαροκυπρίνος)

 An E Asian fish, introduced worldwide. Maximum length 145 cm, common length 60 cm. Highly commercial. 

 

Genus Leucaspius Heckel & Kner, 1858 

 

Monotypic genus, very close to Alburnus. 

 

49. Leucaspius delineates (Hechel, 1843)   (μικροσίρκο)

From Nestos to Evros river drainages. Slow or still waters. Maximum length 9 cm, common length 6 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

 

Genus Leucos Heckel, 1843

Genus endemic to SE Europe, with 5 species, close to Rutilus. 

 

50. Leucos basak Heckel, 1843     (πλατίκα) 

{Rutilus prespensis (Karaman, 1924)}     

Endemic to lakes and still water rivers of Adriatic drainages, from Prespa lakes to Croatia (lakes Prespa, Ochrid and Skadar and Neretva basin). At lake shores and in shallow, swampy waters. Maximum length 17 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

51. *Leucos ylikiensis (Economidis, 1991) 

{Rutilus ylikiensis Economidis, 1991} 

Endemic to Kifisos river drainage, including Yliki and Paralimni lakes. Introdused to lake Volvi. At still waters. Related to L. panosi. Maximum lenght  13 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered.

 

52. *Leucos panosi (Bogutskaya & Iliadou, 2006)

{Rutilus panosi Bogutskaya & Iliadou, 2006}  

Endemic to Acheloos river drainage incl. Trichonis, Amvrakia and Lysimachia lakes. Propably also Louros river. Introduced to Pamvotis lake. At still waters. Related to L. ylikiensis. Maximum length 17 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

 

Genus Pachychilon (Steindachner, 1882) 

 

Genus endemic to SW Balkans, close to Leuciscus and Rutilus, with two species. 

 

53. Pachychilon macedonicum  (Steindachner, 1892)    (μαυροτσιρώνι) 

{Leuciscus macedonicus Steindachner, 1892} 

Endemic to Axios, Galikos, Aliakmon and Pinios river drainages. Maximum length 12 cm. Waters with little current. IUCN Red List Status, Data Deficient. 

 

54. Pachychilon pictum (Heckel & Kner, 1858)     (χειλάς) 

Aoos river. Maximum length 18 cm. Waters with little current. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

Genus Parabremis Bleeker, 1865

 

Monotypic genus.

 

55. Parabramis  pekinensis (Basilewsky, 1855) 

An E Asian fish, introduced. Maximum length 55 cm, common length 8.5 cm. Highly commercial.   

 

Genus Pelasgus Kottelat & Freyhof, 2007 

 

Genus of 7 species, endemic to S Balkans, 4 endemic to Greece. Sister genus to the W Balkan endemic Delminichthys Freyhof et al. 2006. 

 

56. *Pelasgus epiroticus (Steindachner, 1895)    (τσίμα) 

{Pseudophoxinus e.} 

Endemic to lake Pamvotis. Maximum length 10 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

57. *Pelasgus laconicus Kottelat & Barbieri, 2004 

{Pseudophoxinus l.} 

Endemic to Evrotas river basin and upper main Alphios river basin. Also springs and creeks, with slow or no current, close to the shore in dense vegetation. Maximum length 5 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangared.

 

58. *Pelasgus marathonicus (Vinciguerra, 1921)   (ντάσκα) 

{Pseudophoxinus m.} 

Endemic to Marathon plain, Sperchios and Kifisos river drainages and Erassinos stream (Vravron). Inhabits springs, swamps and canals, among vegetation. Maximum length 6.5 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Near Threatened.

  

59. Pelasgus prespensis (Karaman, 1924)      (τσίμα) 

Endemic to lakes Prespa. Maximum length 5.5 cm. Still waters and lakes shores, with abundant vegetation. IUCN Red List Status, Endangared. 

 

60. *Pelasgus stymphalicus (Valenciennes, 1844)   (ντάσκα) 

{Pseudophoxinus s.} 

Endemic to lake Stymphalia, lower Alfios and Pinios, Aetolia-Acarnania and Lefkas isl. (?). Maximum length 12 cm. Waters with little current, wetlands and springs. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.     

 

61. Pelasgus thesproticus (Stephanidis, 1939) 

From Kalamas to Arachthos river drainages and Kerkira isl. Also Albania. Maximum length 6 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Near Threatened. 

 

Genus Petroleuciscus Bogutskaya, 2002 

 

Genus of five species, very close to Squalius. 

 

62. Petroleuciscus borysthenicus (Kessler, 1859)      (τσαϊλάκι) 

{Leuciscus b.} 

Strimon to Evros river drainages. Maximum length 40 cm, common length 18 cm. Waters with slow current and lakes, on sundy or muddy substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

63. Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus (Boulenger, 1896) 

{Leuciscus borysthenicus s.} 

Voulgaris and Milopotamos streams, Lesvos isl. A fish of W Anatolia. Maximum length 10 cm. Waters with slow to still current. Closely related to P. borysthenicus.  

 

Genus Phoxinus Rafinesque, 1820 

 

Small- sized fishes, inhabiting the northern Eurasia and N America. 

 

64. Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)    (κοκκινόγαστρος) 

Aliakmon to Evros, not Strimon. Maximum length 14 cm, common length 7 cm. From large rivers to small streams. 

 

65. *Phoxinus strymonicus Kottelat, 2007 

Endemic to Strimon drainage. Probably also Loudias and Filiouris rivers. Maximum length 5 cm. Small streams with dense vegetation and shallow waters. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered. 

 

Genus Pseudorasbora Bleeker, 1860 

 

66. Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) 

Introduced from E Asia. At least Prespa, Kerkini and Koronia lakes, Aliakmon, Axios and Loudias rivers. Maximum length 11 cm, common length 8 cm. Found mostly in small channels, ponds and small lakes.

 

Genus Rhodeus Agassiz, 1832 

 

67. Rhodeus amarus  (Bloch, 1782)    (μουρμουρίτσα) 

Evros to Strimon river drainages and Prespa lakes. Maximum length 10 cm, common length 5 cm. Found mostly in still or slow-flowing water, with dense vegetation and sundy substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

68. Rhodeus meridionalis Karaman, 1924 

Pinios to Axios river drainages. A Balkan endemic. Maximum length 10 cm. Found mostly in still or slow-flowing water, with dense vegetation and sundy substrates.  IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.   

 

Genus Romanogobio Bănărescu, 1961 

Eurasian genus, sister to Gobio.

  

69. Romanogobio elimeius (Kattoulas, Stephanidis & Economidis, 1973)   (μυλονάκι) 

Pinios to Axios river drainages. A species of Greece and FYROM. Maximum length 10 cm. In relatively deep waters, with sand subtrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

Genus Rutilus Rafinesque, 1820 

 

70. Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758)    (πλατίκα, τσιρώνι) 

{incl. R. vegoriticus Stephanidis, 1950} 

Eurytopic, omnivorous and opportunistic. Native to C Europe, introdused to Pinios, Axios, Strimon and Evros river drainages, and lakes Kastoria, Pamvotis, Doirani, Volvi and Vegoritis. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.

 

71. *Rutilus stoumboudae Bianco & Ketmaier, 2014

  Endemic to lake Volvi, possible also Sperchios river. In still waters, maximum lenght 20 cm. Critically Endangered.

  

 

Genus Scardinius Bonaparte, 1837 

 

Genus distributed in Europe and W Asia, closely related to Tropidophoxinellus. 

 

72. *Scardinius acarnanicus Stephanidis, 1939   (τσερούκλα) 

Endemic to Acheloos river drainage. Also Kalamas river (introduced?). Maximum length 27 cm. Close to S. graecus. IUCN Red List Status, Near Threatened. 

 

73. Scardinius erythropthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758)   (κοκκινοφτέρα) 

Widespread European species, found in Pinios, Aliakmon, Axios, Strimon, Nestos and Evros river drainages. Maximum length 51 cm, common length 20 cm. Mainly at well vegetated, lowland waters. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.   

  

74. *Scardinius graecus Stephanidis, 1937 

Endemic to lakes Iliki and Paralimni and Kifisos river. Maximum length 40 cm, common length 25 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.    

 

Genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1841 

{Leuciscus subg. Squalius} 

 

Genus of c. 45 species, widespread in Europe and W Asia. An unnamed Squalius species exist on Samos island. 

 

75. Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)   (Τυλινάρι) 

     {Leuciscus c.} 

Strimon river eastwards. Also lakes Koronia and Volvi. Maximum length 60 cm, common length 30 cm. Mostly in small rivers and large streams. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

76. Squalius cii (Richardson, 1857) 

Lesvos isl. A fish of NW Anatolia. Maximum length 16 cm. Streams with rocky substrates.   

 

77. Squalis ghigii (Gianferrari, 1927)      (Γκιζάνι 

{Ladigesocypris ghigii (Gianferrari, 1927)} 

Rodos isl. Also SW Turkey. Inhabits most of the island’s freshwater systems. Prefers rather slow waters, close to the banks (roots of trees, cavities and vegetation). Maximum length 9 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable.

  

78.*Squalius keadicus (Stephanidis, 1971) 

{Leuciscus k. Stephanidis, 1971} 

Endemic to the river Evrotas drainage and the Vassilopotamos stream (possibly extinct). Maximum length 15 cm. Energetic, strongly rheophilic, but also in slow flowing water. Usually in open sites of the river, on stony bottoms and relatively cool water. 

Critically endangered, with populations dramatically reduced in recent years. An element of the ancient ichthyofauna, one of the most ancestral fishes in Europe, very isolated within the genus. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered.    

 

79. *Squalius moreoticus (Stephanidis, 1971) 

{Leuciscus cephalus m. Stephanidis, 1971} 

Endemic to Stimphalia lake and Vouraikos river drainage. Sister species to S. peloponensis. Maximum length 21 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered.    

 

80. Squalius orpheus Kottelat & Economidis, 2006 

Thraki (Nestos, Evros rivers). Introduced to Thasos isl. Maximum length 14 cm. Still to moderate flowing water. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

81. *Squalius pamvoticus (Stephanidis, 1939)    (τυλινάρι) 

{Leuciscus cephalus p. Stephanidis, 1939} 

Endemic to Kalamas, Acheron, Louros and Arachthos river drainages. Also lake Pamvotis. Maximum length 30 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

82. *Squalius peloponensis (Valenciennes, 1844)

{Leuciscus p. Val. 1844 

  Leuciscus cephalus p. Valenciennes, 1844} 

Endemic to W Greece, south to Peloponnisos (mainly Alfios and Pinios - not Evrotas river or Stimphalia lake). Introduced to Dafnonas river, SE Peloponnisos. Streams and rivers with moderate current. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

83. Squalius prespensis (Fowler, 1977) 

{Leuciscus p. Fowler, 1977} 

Endemic to Prespa lakes. Maximum length 25 cm. Close to the shores. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

84. Squalius vardarensis (Karaman, 1928) 

{Leuciscus vardarensis(Karaman, 1928) 

 Leuciscus cephalus v. Karaman, 1928} 

Rivers Sperchios, Pinios, Axios, Gallikos, Aoos, Aliakmon and lake Doirani. Also N and C Evvoia (Kirintos and Manikiotico rivers). Also FYROM. Maximum length 16 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.     

 

Genus Telestes Bonaparte, 1837 

 

Genus close to Chondrostoma but sister to the W Asian Pseudophoxinus. 

 

85. *Telestes alfiensis (Stephanidis, 1971) 

Endemic to NW Peloponnisos, south to Alfios river. Very close to T. pleurobipunctatus. Lowland waters, with moderate current. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated. 

 

86. *Telestes beoticus (Stephanidis, 1939)     (Πασκοβίζα 

{Pelasgus b.       

  Pseudophoxinus b. (Stephanidis, 1939)} 

Endemic to lakes Iliki and Paralimni and rivers Asopos (disappeared) and Kifisos. Maximum length 13 cm. In still or slow running clean water, forming small schools, most frequently near aquatic plants. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered 

 

87. Telestes pleurobipunctatus (Stephanidis, 1939)   (λιάρα)    

 {Leuciscus p.} 

Western mainland Greece, north to Kalamas river and Kerkira isl. Also S Albania. Maximum length 18 cm. Lowland waters, with moderate current. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.  

 

 

Genus Tinca Cuvier, 1816 

Monotypic genus. 

 

88. Τinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)   (γλύνι) 

Western and southern mainland. Eurasian species. Maximum length 70 cm, common length 20 cm. Mostly in shallow, well vegetated waters. Widely introduced. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

 

Genus Tropidophoxinellus Stephanidis, 1974 

 

A genus of three species, two of them endemic to Greece. 

 

89. *Tropidophoxinellus hellenicus (Stephanidis, 1971)      (Γουρνάρα) 

Endemic to Pinios and Acheloos river drainages. Maximum length 9 cm. Lowland waters with little current. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.  

 

90. *Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus (Schmidt-Ries, 1943)     (Μπάφα) 

Endemic to S Peloponnisos, from Nedas to Evrotas river drainages. Maximum length 9.5 cm. River and small streams with moderate current. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

Genus Vimba Fitzinger, 1873 

 

91. Vimba melanops (Heckel, 1837)       (μαλαμίδα)

 From Pinios to Evros river drainages. Maximum length 32 cm.A S Balkan species. 

 

Family COBITIDAE (28 genera, 236 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758 (βελονίτσα) 

 

Small, slender fishes, bottom dwellers, easily overlooked. Widespread in Eurasia and NW Africa. 24 species are known from Europe. Subgenus Cobitis s. str. is widespred from Europe to Japan and inhabits C Greece. Subgenus Bicanestrinia Bặcescu 1961, spreads from W Greece to W Iran.

 

92. *Cobitis (Bicanestrinia) arachthosensis Economidis & Nalbant, 1996 

Endemic to Arachthos river. Maximum length 8 cm. In burrows mostly in sandy to silty substrate in still to moderately flowing waters. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered.  

 

93. *Cobitis (Bicanestrinia) hellenica Economidis & Nalbant, 1996 

Endemic to Louros, Arachthos and Kalamas river basins. Maximum length 9 cm. Ιn sandy to silty substrate in still to moderately flowing waters. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered.  

 

94. Cobitis (Bicanestrinia) meridionalis Karaman, 1924 

Endemic to lake Prespa (Greece, Albania, FYROM). Maximum length 11 cm. In sandy or muddy substrates with underwater vegetation. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

95. Cobitis (Cobitis) ochridana Karaman, 1928 

Aoos river drainage. A W Balkan species. Maximum length 7 cm. In sandy to  muddy substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.  

 

96. Cobitis (Cobitis) puncticulata (Erk’akan, Atalay-Ekmekçi & Nalbant, 1998) 

A rare species of W Turkey, recorded from Evros river on 2008. Still to moderate flowing waters, with muddy or sandy substrates. Maximum length 8 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

97 *Cobitis (Bicanestrinia) punctilineata Economidis & Nalbant, 1996 

Endemic to Aggitis river. Maximum length 10 cm. Still to moderate flowing waters, in muddy to silt subtrates. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

98. *Cobitis (Cobitisstephanidisi  Economidis & Nalbant, 1996 

Endemic to Kefalovriso spring, whinin Velestino, lake Karla catchment (extirpated in 1998) and Chasambali. Maximum length 9 cm. Water courses with little current and springs, with silt substrates and underwater vegetation. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.

 

99. Cobitis (Bicanestrinia) strumicae Karaman, 1955 (Θρακοβελονίτσα) 

Drainages from Strimon to Evros, including lakes Volvi and Koronia. A S Balkan endemic. Maximum length 11 cm. Waters with little current, springs and lakes, in sundy or silt subtrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

100. *Cobitis (Bicanestrinia) trichonica Stephanidis, 1974 

Endemic to Trichonis, Lysimachia and Amvrakia lakes and Acheloos river basin. Maximum length 8 cm. Water courses with little current and lakes. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered. 

 

101. Cobitis (Cobitis)  vardarensis vardarensis Karaman, 1928 

Pinios, Galikos, Axios, Loudias and Aliakmon river basins (Greece and FYROM).  Found in still waters, rarely in flowing waters (rivers with little current and springs). IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

Genus Sabanejewia Vladykov, 1929 

 

A genus with more than 20 species, sister to Cobitis, distributed from Italy to C Russia. 

 

102. Sabanejewia balcanica  Karaman, 1922  (χρυσοβελονίτσα) 

{S. aurata Economidis, Kattoulas & Stephanidis, 1981}   

Pinios to Galikos and Evros river basins, lake Doirani. A Balkan endemic. Maximum length 9 cm. Streams and lakes, in sundy subtrates sometimes in gravels. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

Family NEMACHEILIDAE

 

Nemacheilines are sometimes considered as a subfamily of Cobitidae or Balitoridae. 

 

Genus Barbatula H.F.Linck, 1790 

 

103. Barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus, 1758)    (βίνος)

{B. vardarensis Karaman 1928} 

Eurasian species, occuring in Axios and Aliakmon rivers. Maximum length 21 cm, common length 12 cm. Usually found in streams and medium-sized rivers, with stony to gravely substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.       

 

Genus Oxynoemacheilus Bănărescu & Nalbant, 1966 

 

A mainly W Asian genus, with only three European species. 

 

104. Oxynoemacheilus bureschi (Drensky, 1928)   (πετροχείλι) 

Maximum length 6.5 cm. Axios to Nestos river drainages. A C Balkan species (Greece, Bulgaria and FYROM). Flowing water with stony to gravely substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.       

 

105. Oxynoemacheilus pindus (Economidis, 2005) 

{Barbatula p. Economidis, 2005} 

Endemic to upper Aoos river (Greece, Albania). Maximum length 7.5 cm. Streams with quite fast flow and stony to gravely substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

106. Oxynoemacheilus theophilii Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri, 2006 

Evergetoulas stream, Lesvos isl. Also W Anatolia. Maximum length 6.6 cm. Upper part of the stream, with current and stony substrates. IUCN Red List Status, Critically  Endangered.       

 

Order SILURIFORMES (38 families worldwide) 

 

Family ICTALURIDAE 

 

Genus Ictalurus Rafinesque, 1820 

107. Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818) 

A N American fish, introduced. Maximum 130 cm, common length 60 cm. Rivers and streams with well oxygenated waters, also pods and reservoirs. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated. 

 

Family SILURIDAE (12 genera, 99 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Silurus Linnaeus, 1758 

 

108. *Silurus aristotelis Garman, 1890    (γλανίδι) 

{Parasilurus a.} 

Endemic to the lower Acheloos river system, mainly lakes Trichonis, Lysimachia, Ozeros and Amvrakia. Also introduced to lakes Pamvotis and Volvi (where propably extinct). Slow flowing rivers, streams, canals, well vegetated lakes with muddy substrate. Maximum length 46 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Data deficient. One of Europe’s oldest surviving freshwater fish species. 

 

109. Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758   (γουλιανός) 

Evros to Pinios river drainages. Slow flowing rivers, streams, canals, well vegetated lakes. Maximum length 5 m, common length 3 m. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

 

Family CLARIIDAE 

 

Genus Clarias Scopoli, 1777 

 

110. Clarias gariepinus (Βurchell, 1822) 

A species of Africa and Middle East, widely introduced by aquarists as an ornamental fish. Maximum length 170 cm. Common length 90 cm. Rivers and lakes. The presence of an accessory breathing organ enables this species to breath air under very dry conditions. It is also able to crawl on dry ground.   

 

 

Order ESOCIFORMES (2 families worldwide) 

 

Family ΕSOCIDAE (1 genus, 5 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Esox Linnaeus, 1758 

 

Esox is the only extant genus of the family. Five species are currently known, distributed in Eurasia and N America. 

 

111. Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758(τούρνα) 

Maximum length 150 cm, common length 40-55 cm. Widely introduced. NW Greece, south to Pinios. A fish of  Eurasia and N America. Lakes and large rivers, with clear vegetated waters.  IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.       

 

Order SALMONIFORMES (1 family worldwide) 

 

Family SALMONIDAE 

(11 genera, 213 species, on the N Hemisphere) 

Large fishes, with spotted body. Well developed adipose fin above short anal fin. Ca. 210 species, on the N Hemisphere. 

 

Genus Coregonus Linnaeus, 1758 

 

112. Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus, 1758)     (κορέγονος) 

Lakes and rivers, rarely full saltwaters, native of N Europe. Maximum length 75 cm. Commersially introduced. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

Genus Oncorhynchus Suckley, 1861 

 

113. Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792)   

Maximum length 110 cm, common length 60 cm. Native of N Pacific, introduced commercially. Lakes, rivers and marine waters.  IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated. 

 

114. Oncorhynchus mikiss (Walbaum, 1792)   (αμερικανική πέστροφα) 

Maximum length 120 cm, common length 60 cm. Native of N Pacific, introduced commercially (Prespa, Louros, Nestos river, e.tc.). Lakes, rivers and marine waters.  IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated. 

 

Genus Salmo (Linnaeus, 1758)   (πέστροφα) 

 

Greek Salmo populations are, genetically, extremely diverse, isolated and small. They all belong to the super-species Salmo trutta L., which is widely distributed to the Palearctic region, exhibiting considerable morphological and life-history variation. 

 

115. Salmo farioides Karaman, 1938    

Rivers Thiamis, Acheloos, Evinos, Mornos and  NW Peloponnisos. A W Balkan species. Maximum length 30 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Data deficient. 

 

116. *Salmo lourosensis Delling, 2010  

Endemic to Louros river. IUCN Red List Status, Data deficient. 

 

117. Salmo macedonicus Karaman, 1924 

From Strimon to Evros. A C Balkan endemic. Maximum length 40 cm. 

 

118. Salmo pelagonicus Karaman, 1938     

Upper  Aliakmon river drainage, restricted to cold streams. Also FYROM. Maximum length 30 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Vulnerable. 

 

119. Salmo peristericus Karaman, 1938      

Endemic to lake Prespa basin (Greece, FYROM). Maximum length 35 cm. Four streams by the lake (only Agios Germanos stream in Greece). Population of every stream, is isolated, with no gene flow between them. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.

 

120. Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 

Amphihaline species, Maximum length 150 cm, common length 40 cm. 

 

Genus Salvelinus J. Richardson, 1836

 

121. Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814) 

Native of N America, widely introduced worldwide. Maximum length 86 cm, common length 26 cm. 

 

Order ATHERINIFORMES (10 families worldwide) 

 

Family ATHERINIDAE (14 genera, 68 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Atherina (Linnaeus, 1758) (αθερίνα) 

 

122. Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810    

Species of Mediterranean and E Atlantic. Very euryhaline, frequently found in freshwater. Maximum length 20 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Consern.

 

123. Atherina hepsetus Linnaeus, 1758 

Species of Mediterranean and E Atlantic. Marine, entering lagoons and estouaries. Maximum length 20 cm, common length 15 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated. 

 

Order CYPRINODONTIFORMES (10 families worldwide) 

 

Family VALENCIIDAE (1 genus, 3 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Valencia Myers, 1928 

 

A genus of three species, two in the W Balkans and one in Spain. 

 

124. Valencia letourneuxi (Sauvage, 1880)    (ζουρνάς) 

W Greece (rivers Kalamas, Acheron, Louros and Arachthos). Also springs Vlichos and Astakos). Re-discovered  at Kerkira isl. (Melissoudi stream), extinct at Lefkada island. Also S Albania. Swamps, lowland rivers with slow running or stagnant clear water, lagoons, springs, wetlands, rich in aquatic vegetation. Maximum length 8 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.

 

125. *Valencia robertae Freyhof, Kärst & Geiger, 2014

Endemic to Pinios river, W Peloponnisos, Acheloos river and Chiliadou spring in Mornos delta, Sterea Ellas. Extinct at Alfios river. Swamps, lowland rivers with slow running or stagnant clear water, lagoons, springs, wetlands, rich in aquatic vegetation. Maximum length 8 cm. Critically Endangered.

 

 

Family POECILIIDAE (41 genera, 343 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Gambusia Poey, 1854 

 

126. Gambusia holbrooki Girard, 1859   (κουνουπόψαρο) 

A N American species, introduced worldwide as a biological agent for prevention of malaria, widely introduced to Greece. Maximum length 8 cm. Usually inhabits standing to slow-flowing waters, well vegetated.  IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated.

 

Genus Poecilia Bloch & J.G.Schneider, 1801 

127. Poecilia latipinna (Lesuer, 1821) 

Vouliagmeni lake, Attiki. A N American species, introduced to many countries. Still or slow flowing waters of small creeks and drains, ponds and lakes. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated.    

 

Family CYPRINODONTIDAE (9 genera, 121 species worldwide)

  

Genus Aphanius Nardo, 1827 

 

128. *Aphanius almiriensis Kottelat, Barbieri & Stoumboudi, 2007 

Endemic to NE Peloponnisos (brackish spring Kokosi near Almiri and Meligou lagoon). Swallow and slow current, brackish waters, among vegetation. Maximum length 4 cm. Very rare, Critically Endangered. 

 

129. Αphanius fasciatus (Nardo, 1827)     (Ζαμπαρόλα, γούργος, Ζαχαριάς) 

Porto Lagos, Vistonis, Kerkira, Zakinthos, Acheloos and Sperchios rivers mouth, Peloponnisos and Attiki. Mediterranean species. Maximum length 6 cm. Still to slow-flowing water, especially coastal lagoons and river mouths. Brackish or freshwater. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.       

 

Order GASTEROSTEIFORMES (5 families worldwide) 

 

Family GASTEROSTEIDAE (5 genera, 18 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Gasterosteus Linnaeus, 1758 

 

130. Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758    (αγκαθερό) 

Acheron, Louros, Pamisos river, Lerni spring, Sperchios, Pinios rivers and Vistonis lake. Maximum length 11cm, common length 5 cm. A north Hemisphere species. Swallow, vegetated waters, with muddy substrates, brackish, freshwater and marine. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.       

 

Genus Pungitius Coste, 1848 

Genus widely distributed in Eurasia and N America, with c. 10 species.

 

131. *Pungitius hellenicus Stephanidis, 1971 (Ελληνοπυγόστεος) 

Endemic to Sperchios valley, in small water bodies, with clear, well-oxygenated, cool waters, with rich vegetation (Agia Paraskevi spring, east of Lamia and the associated system of drainage channels, a large system of connected drainage and irrigation channels near Moschochori village and a small number of natural wells near the village Kompotades). Exhibit cryptic behavior, with their camouflage coloration. Often  sympatric with Gasterosteus aculeatus and  Pelasgus marathonicus. Maximum length 5 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered.

 

132. Pungitius platygaster (Kessler, 1859)

Axios, Aliakmon and Loudias rivers drainages. An Eurasian fish. Swamps and slow-flowing streams, with dense vegetation. Maximum length 6 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.  

 

Order SYNGNATHIFORMES (5 families worldwide) 

 

Family SYNGNATHIDAE (56 genera, 340 species worldwide)

 

Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus, 1758) and three more Sygnathus species may be found in freshwaters, but we follow Economou et al. (2007) and retain only S. abaster. 

 

Genus Syngnathus Linnaeus, 1758 

133. Syngnathus abaster Risso, 1826 

Mediterranean and E Atlantic Sea. Euryhalyne marine species, entering freshwater. Maximum length 20 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

Order PERCIFORMES (21 suborders) 

 

Suborder PERCOIDEI (84 families worldwide) 

 

Family MORONIDAE (2 genera, 6 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Dicentrarchus (λαβράκι)

 

134. Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Species of Mediterranean and E Atlantic Sea. Marine species, entering lagoons, estuaries and occasionally rivers. Μaximum length 103 cm, common length 50 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

135. Dicentrarchus punctatus (Bloch, 1792) 

Species of Mediterranean and E Atlantic Sea. Marine species, occasionally entering  rivers. Μaximum length 70 cm, common length 30 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated. 

 

Family CENTRARCHIDAE (8 genera, 33 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Lepomis Rafinesque, 1819 

 

136. Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (σπαράκι, ηλιόψαρο) 

Prespa and Kerkini lakes, rivers Evros, Strimon, Nestos, Axios, Pinios, e.tc. Maximum length 40 cm. Common length 15-20 cm. A North American fish widely introduced by aquarists as an ornamental fish. Vegetated lakes and ponds, as well as slow running rivers. First reported from Greece at the mid 70’s, throught rivers throught N Balkan countries. 

 

Genus Micropterus Lacépède, 1802 

 

137. Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède, 1802) 

Maximum length 97 cm, common length 40 cm. A N American fish, introduced. 

 

Family PERCIDAE (10 genera, 226 species worldwide)

 

A N Hemisphere family of more than 200 species, only 14 Eurasian in 6 genera. 

 

Genus Perca Linnaeus, 1758

 

138. Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758    (περκί, πέρκα)

 Aliakmon to Evros river drainages. Eurasian fish. Maximum length 60 cm, common length 25 cm. Inhabits a very wide range of habitats. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.      

 

Genus Sander Oken, 1817 

Genus of five species, three in Eurasia and two in N America.

  

139. Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758)    (ποταμολαύρακο) 

Evros river. Commersial fish, widely introduced. Maximum length 100 cm, common length 50 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

Genus Zingel Cloquet, 1814 

 

140. Zingel balcanicus (Karaman, 1937)    (ποταμολούτσος) 

Axios river (Greece and FYROM). IUCN Red List Status, Data deficient.

 

Suborder MUGILOIDEI (1 family worldwide) 

 

Family MUGILIDAE (20 genera, 72 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Chelon Artedi, 1793

 

141. Chelon labrosus (Risso, 1826) 

Mediterranean Sea and E Atlantic Sea. Marine, entering freshwater. Maximum length 75 cm, common length 32 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.   

 

Genus Liza Jordan & Swain, 1884 

142. Liza aurata (Risso, 1810)

Mediterranean Sea and E Atlantic Sea. Marine, entering estouaries and lagoons, rarely freshwater. Maximum 60 cm, common length 30 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

143. Liza ramada (Risso, 1827) 

Mediterranean Sea and E Atlantic Sea. Marine, entering estouaries, lagoons and rivers. Maximum 70 cm, common length 35 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

 

144. Liza saliens (Risso, 1810)

Mediterranean Sea and E Atlantic Sea. Marine, entering estouaries and lagoons. Maximum 40 cm, common length 30 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern. 

 

Genus Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 

 

145. Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 

Cosmopolitan marine species, entering estouaries, lagoons and rivers. Maximum 100 cm, common length 50 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.        

 

146. Mugil soiuy Basilewsky, 1855 

An Asian marine species, introduced to the Mediterranean Sea via Black Sea. Enters freshwaters. Maximum 80 cm, common length 40 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated.        

 

Suborder LABROIDEI (6 families) 

 

Family CICHLIDAE (221 genera, 1606 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Oreochromis Günther, 1889 

 

147. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (τιλάπια) 

Thermopiles hotsprings and Kremasta reservoir, Acheloos drainage. Euryhaline fish, of African origin, widely introduced by aquarists as an ornamental fish. Rivers and lakes. Maximum length 60 cm. 

 

Suborder BLENNIOIDEI (6 families worldwide) 

 

Family BLENNIIDAE (57 genera, 398 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Salaria Forskål, 1775

 

148. *Salaria economidisi Kottelat, 2004 

Endemic to Trichonis lake. Possibly occurs in other lakes of the Acheloos drainage. Maximum length 6.5 cm. Benthic, on sand and gravel substrates with large stones at the lake shores, in dense vegetation. Close to the marine species S. pavo (Risso, 1810). IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

149. Salaria fluviatilis (Asso, 1801) 

Benthic, at streams with swift water and rocks, also at rocky shores of lakes. Lives under stones. Holomediterranean. Maximum length 15 cm. Known from Kalamas, Acheron and Aliakmon drainages, most drainages of Peloponnisos, Kriti and lakes Doirani, Koronia, Volvi and Vistonis. Possibly present also in Acheloos drainage, with S. economidisiClose to the marine species S. pavo (Risso, 1810). IUCN Red List Status, Least Consern.   

 

150. Salaria pavo (Risso, 1810) 

Species of Mediterranean and E Atlantic. Marine, entering lagoons and estouaries. Maximum length 13 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Not Evaluated.  

 

Suborder GOBIOIDEI (8 families worldwide) 

 

Family GOBIIDAE (γωβιοί) (248 genera, 1630 species worldwide) 

Gobiidae is one of the most species rich fish family worldwide, with c. 2000 species. It is represented in the Mediterranean Sea with c. 25 genera and 60 species, many of them endemic. The Balkans are a very important area for the family. 

 

Economidichthys Bianco, Bullock, Miller & Roubal, 1987 

 

Genus endemic to W Greece, propably paraphyletic.

 

 151. *Economidichthys pygmaeus (Holly, 1929) 

{Gobio p. Holly, 1929 

  Gobius martensii var. prevesicus Stephanidis, 1939} 

Endemic to W Greece (Kalamas, Louros, Arachthos, Acheloos and Vlicho rivers), lakes Pamvotis, Trichonis (incl. Mataranga river), Lysimachia, Ziros and Ozeros, Chiliadou spring (Mornos river delta) and Levkas isl (Zoodochos Pigi, now drained). Inhabits both flowing and stagnant shallows, with abundant vegetation. Maximum length 5 cm. Associated with Gasterosteus aculeatus and Pelasgus stymphalicus. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.       

 

152. *Economidichthys trichonis Economidis & Miller, 1990 

Endemic to lake Trichonis, sympatric with E. pygmaeus. The smallest European freshwater fish. Maximum length 3 cm. At the mouths of tributary streams, with abundant vegetation. IUCN Red List Status, Endangered. 

 

Genus Millerigobius Bath, 1973 

A monotypic genus.

 

153. Millerigobius macrocephalus (Kolombatovic, 1891) 

E Mediterranean species. Marine species, found in Vouliagmeni lake, Attiki. Under stones. Maximum length 4.5 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Data Deficient. 

 

Genus Neogobius Iljin, 1927 

Genus of four species.

 

154. Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814) 

Evros river, maybe translocated? A fish of Black Sea and Azov Sea basins. Estuaries and lagoons, entering rivers. On sandy subtrates. Maximum length 20 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.     

 

Genus Knipowitschia Iljin, 1927 

{incl. Orsinigobius Gandolfi, Marconato & Torricelli, 1986} 

 

A genus of c. 15 euryhaline or freshwater fishes, distributed from the Adriatic Sea to Caspian Sea. 

 

155. Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg, 1916)   (ποντογωβιός) 

{Pomatoschistus c. Kawrajsky, 1916 

  Bubyr c. Iljin, 1930} 

Macedonia, Thracia (Aliacmon, Itamos, Strimon, Nestos, Filiouris, Evros rivers system, lakes Volvi, Vistonis) and Aegean islands south to Evvoia (Samothraki etc). Euryhaline, in fresh or hypersaline waters, in weedy shallows. Maximum length 5 cm.  Widespread Ponto-Caspian. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.      

 

156. *Knipowitschia goerneri Ahnelt, 1991 

Endemic to Korission lagoon, Kerkira isl. Maximum length 2.2 cm. Usually in springs and small brooks. IUCN Red List Status, Data deficient. 

 

157. *Knipowitschia milleri (Ahnelt & Bianco, 1990) 

{Orsinigobius m. Ahnelt & Bianco, 1990} 

Endemic to Acheron river drainage. Maximum length 2.6 cm. Lowland, stagnant waters, with abundant vegetation and sandy to muddy substrates.  IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

158. Knipowitschia panizzae (Verga, 1841) 

Lagoons and estuaries of W Greece (Aetoliko, Acheloos, Kalogria and possibly Evinos). Fish of the Ionian and Adriatic coast. Closely related (or conspecific) to K. caucasica. Maximum length 5.5 cm. Euryhaline, inhabits shallow, well vegetated waters. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.      

 

159. *Knipowitschia thessala (Vinciguerra, 1921) 

{Gobius thessalus Vinc., 1921} 

Endemic to Pinios river system (spring Kefalovriso Mt Ossa, lake Karla). Maximum length 4.5 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Critically Endangered. 

 

Genus Proterorhinus Smitt 

 

160. Proterorhinus semilunaris Heckel, 1837         (ρινογωβιός) 

Evros and Strymon river system. A species of  the Black Sea rivers and estuaries, inhabiting brackish waters and freshwaters. Closely related to the marine P. marmoratus. Maximum length 11.5 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.    

  

Genus Zosterisessor Whitley, 1935 

A monotypic genus.

 

161. Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Pallas, 1814) 

A Mediterranean marine species, entering lagoons and estouaries. Maximum length 25 cm. IUCN Red List Status, Data Deficient. 

 

Order PLEURONECTIFORMES (11 families) 

 

Family PLEURONECTIDAE (40 genera, 105 species worldwide) 

 

Genus Platichthys Girard, 1854   (γλώσσα) 

162. Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) 

A species of Atlantic and Mediterranean Seas. Maximum length 60 cm, common length 50 cm. Μarine, often entering freshwaters. IUCN Red List Status, Least Concern.   

 

 

 

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